FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Currently there is a mediation processes that the REICT have agreed to that is mediated by the non- REICT organ the “Interim Shura Council”. The REICT has honoured the MJC request as mediators to note discuss matters regarding the “ISC”. Thus, for now the REICT will discuss any matter including the “ISC”.
The REICT takes pleasure in presenting the Frequently asked Questions & Answers
Frequently Asked Questions
- What does the acronym REICT stand for?
Answer: Rondebosch East Islamic Community Trust.
- Is this REICT registered?
Answer – Yes, the REICT is duly registered with the Master of the High Court.
- What is the purpose for registering a trust?
it is regulated by government legislation thus ensuring that the assets are protected.
Historical context – Before the acquisition of the premises there was a Jamaat Khana were prayers was performed. The Organization was called Rondebosch East Islamic Society (REIS). When the current premises were acquired it was decided to disband the REIS & create a trust to protect & preserve & manage the operations of the organization. The trust was called the Rondebosch East Islamic Community Trust. REICT. A trust deed was developed with attorneys. The new newly formed trust deed incorporated the old REIS constitution.
- Do the REICT have a trust deed or constitution?
Yes, the REICT has a trust deed that is registered with the master of the high court. The trust deed regulates the activities of the REICT. The comprehensiveness of the trust deed is as such that it incorporates the constitution. See the attached trust deed.
Trust deed to be attached to be openable in Pdf format
- Is the Trust Deed Shariah compliant?
Yes, the trust deed mandates that all transactions must be Shariah compliant. Significant care has been taken in developing the trust deed. This process was overseen by one of the biggest law firms in South Africa & one of the most respected Muslim attorneys.
All the activities of the Trust, in pursuance of all its aforementioned purposes and objectives and such other activities as the Trustees may from time to time determine, shall be in conformity with the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). Any doubt or dispute regarding such conformity shall be governed in terms of clause 22.
- What is the role of the trustees?
The trustees must ensure that all the institutions with in the trust deed are maintained. This includes:
Clause 10 – Duties of Trustees (excerpt from the trust deed)
The Trustees must –
- keep proper accounting and other records of all transactions concluded by them;
- give the Master information about the affairs of the Trust as they require;
- instruct any accountants and auditors of the Trust to give the Master information about the affairs of the Trust as he may require;
- keep proper minutes of all their meetings and decisions;
- deposit all monies not invested by them in a bank account to be opened in the name of the Trust;
- identify all assets of the Trust as the property of the Trust;
- keep all assets of the Trust separate from their assets;
- appoint sufficient qualified and experienced staff to perform the business of the Trust; and
- perform the duties imposed on them in this Trust Deed.
- Does the trust deed state that trustees can serve for life?
No, the trust deed does not state that a trustee can serve for life. It does not prescribe a specific time frame. Previously, trusteeship was time based & the records have shown often there was poor attendance by the registered trustees. This resulted to many logistical & organizational challenges. The new outlook was to have the trustees monitored by performance i.e. attendance of meetings, contributions to the trust meetings, executing tasks etc. The trustees are monitored on performance & from time to time they have external evaluators to assess the effectiveness & efficiency. The trustees have indicated several times that if the community wanted the trusted can be changed to a time-based appointment.
Please see attached an assessment report of the trustees.
- How did the Trust Deed evolve?
The only perfect constitution is the Quran. The REICT trust deed is the constitution that governs the operations of the REICT. We must accede that no constitution is perfect & all constitutions evolve over time with the changing needs of the times. The only constant is change itself. Similarly, the REICT constitution has evolved & the chairperson has mentioned at several meetings in November 2016, 16 December 2016, 29 January 2017 that the REICT is open to input. This input must be done in a structured way, without haste. The chairperson told everyone several times that if the community wishes then the REICT can change the trusteeship to time based with a specific number of years. The trustees have no objections to that.
Some of the Amendments were:
The Trust was formed in 1997
The first trust deed amendment was 2003
The second trust deed amended was 2011
The third time the trust deed was amended was in 2016
The Trustees applied their minds & followed a rationale process with the latest trust deed amendment is as follows:
On the 16 June 2012, a strategic session was held & several areas was highlighted to address.
- Imamate Performance & Leadership
- Trust Leadership & Administration
- Communication – To & From the Community
- Develop a platform whereby we can serve the community better by having more active subcommittees & programs
- Develop Substantial Educational Programming with relevant knowledge
- Address the inconsistencies in the trust deed
The trustees were concerned with the challenges that the almost no one of the community was showing a keenness to take on the responsibility of trusteeship. This is the same problems that the previous trustees experienced. Over a period of 16 months the trustees researched & engaged with many masajids & lawyers to look at the different working models that could possibly be employed. The trust established a simple & efficient three tier system will be the best system for our community. Reference Trust minutes 13 & 15 January 2015.
In addition, at a gathering of the subcommittees in January 2015 this three-tier system was presented to the subcommittees. No objections were raised. At the AGM in 2016 it was again raised & once again no objections was raised.
Please see the attached graphic representation.
The three-tier model explained:
The trustees remain in office for a longer period to ensure that the vision is maintained.
The executive that oversees daily operations is elected.
The subcommittees are open to everyone join, contributing in meaningful way to making a difference to society.
See clause 9.3.27
- When was the last time the REICT followed an election process?
The last election process was held in April & May 2017.
After the formation of a specific groups the trustees was accused for wanting to serve for life. The trustees believed that it was important to dispel the false rumour & fitnah.
The trust then followed an election process with the intention to dispel this fitnah. The best way to dismiss the fitnah was to have an election. An election process was started in the months of May & April 2017. This was advertised in the mosque & posted around the masjid notice boards.
Only 8 candidates were nominated & availed themselves to take on the responsibility of trusteeship. There is a maximum of 10 seats for trusteeship. Because there was less than the required amount there was no need to go for an election & therefore automatically qualified as trustees.
Please attached images of the notices in & around the masjid that informed the community of the election process.
- What was the process followed for the elections in 2017?
The process included that the candidate had to be nominated by community member & by someone that served with the person on a sub-committee of the REICT in the last five years.
Please see the attached diagram of the process that was followed.
- Were there any objections raised to the election process?
There was no objection to the election process. On the 3 May 2017, after the nomination period & screening expired & just before the announcement of the nominated candidates, the trust received a lawyer’s letter from the “interim shura council”, which is not an official organ of the REICT. The “ISC” demanded that the elections be stopped. The REICT legal representatives responded that the community was informed in March 2017 of the elections & the official posters was displayed at the end of March 2017. Furthermore, the REICT has not received any objections to the election process.
After this communication to the attorney of the” ISC” and on the 10 May 2017, the REICT then received a letter of objection from Mr. Bux. The objection seemed strange since it was only received after the REICT informed the “ISC” lawyers that REICT did not receive any objections from anyone whatsoever. What was more confusing was that Mr. Bux was not involved in any subcommittee of the REICT for the last five years.
The REICT believed that the election process must continue & not be stopped or derailed.
- Do the Trustees get paid for being a trustee?
No, trustees don’t get paid. It is a completely voluntary service.
- What is the power of the trustees?
The Trust Deed states the following in clauses 9
- Notwithstanding anything else herein contained, the Trustees shall at all times, whether exercising their powers or carrying out their duties in terms of this Trust Deed, conform to the provisions of the Sunni Islamic Law. All business of this Trust shall be managed and controlled by the Trustees alone in conformity with the teachings of the Noble Quran and the Shariah.
- The powers of the Trustees set out in this Trust Deed are powers which relate to that of the office of Trustee, to enable them to administer the Trust Fund in pursuance of the purpose and objects of the Trust and not for their personal benefit. The extent of the powers vested in the Trustees must be interpreted subject to the pursuance of the purpose and objects of the Trust.
- The Trustees shall at all times be vested with such powers to deal with the Trust Assets which they in their exclusive discretion deem necessary to best control the Trust Fund in pursuance of the purpose and objects of the Trust. Without restricting the general powers of the Trustees but subject to clause 1, the Trustees shall have powers to:
- open bank accounts for the Trust, draw cheques on such account or deposit moneys in it, to issue bills and guarantees in favour of third parties against the account and to hand to the bank, bills for collection in favour of the Trust;
- buy, sell or exchange goods, movable or immovable, corporeal or incorporeal, on such terms and conditions as the Trustees may decide and to cede rights, provided that in the case of immovable property that constitutes Waqaf the Trustees shall not be entitled to sell or exchange immovable property unless they receive the consent of the Muslim Judicial Council or any other competent Muslim judicial authority decided upon by the Trustees, whose consent shall not be withheld provided that such sale is in accordance with the teachings of the Quran and the prescripts of the Shariah and is in the best interests of the Rondebosch East Islamic Community. Provided further that any Mosque or portion thereof falling under the administration of the Trust shall be regarded as Waqaf property and can under no circumstances be sold, exchanged or donated in any way whatsoever;
- invest monies which form part of the Trust Fund in such securities and on such terms and conditions as the Trustees may from time to time determine, provided that monies available for investment may only be invested with registered financial institutions, as defined in section 1 of the Financial Institutions (Protection of Funds) Act 28 of 2001, and in securities listed on a licensed stock exchange as defined in the Financial Markets Act No. 19 of 2012 provided that any such investment is not contrary to the teachings of the Quran and the prescripts of the Shariah;
- retain existing investments or investments made by the Trustees in that form or to re-invest in any other form, but always subject to clause 3.3;
- negotiate loans in favour of the Trust, with or without security, from a Halaal source and on such terms and conditions as are agreed with the lender provided that this is done in accordance with the teachings of the Noble Quran and the Shariah;
- mortgage, hypothecate or grant a lien on any asset of the Trust if this is found to be in accordance with the teachings of the Quran and the prescripts of the Shariah;
- let, improve, alter and maintain any fixed property forming part of the Trust Fund and if need be, to demolish fixed improvements and erect new improvements;
- to appear before any conveyancer, notary public, registrar of Trust Deeds or registrar of claims to sign or execute any documents with regard to the alienation, sub-division, exchange, transfer, mortgage or hypothecation of fixed and/or movable property and to make any application and to give any consent required under the Deeds Registries Act, No 47 of 1937, or any regulation thereunder or any amendments to such Act or regulations;
- institute or defend legal actions;
- attend meetings of creditors of a private individual, company or body who is a debtor of the Trust irrespective of whether the meeting is in connection with insolvency, liquidation or judicial management;
- to vote on any matter submitted to the meeting and generally, to exercise all the rights a creditor would have had in similar circumstances;
- issue receipts, discharges or indemnities in respect of any repayment or discharge of obligations;
- make use of the services of professional advisers and tradesmen for the affairs of the Trust and to pay for such services out of the Trust Fund;
- employ persons on any conditions of employment as the Trustees, in their sole discretion may deem fit, to amend such conditions of employment and to terminate the services of such persons;
- pay any costs incurred in connection with the administration of the Trust out of the Trust Fund;
- accept only irrevocable and unconditional donations or bequests on behalf of the Trust from anybody subject to the terms and conditions of this Trust Deed;
- make donations which are in pursuance of the objects of the Trust;
- form companies or other legal persons which the law may allow, in any part of the world for such purposes as the Trustees may determine, to exercise the vote attaching to such shares or interest vesting in the Trustees and, generally, to exercise any or all of the rights a shareholder or member may have by virtue of the constitution of such company or other legal person or by virtue of an Act in force in the Republic of South Africa;
- either solely or in conjunction with any other person or persons, to enter into such arrangements, as they may consider fit, or the purpose of causing the liquidation, reconstruction or amalgamation or merger of any of the companies in whose capital the said shares shall form portion, and to enter into and carry out such agreement or agreements as they may consider appropriate in regard thereto;
- to exercise any rights or conversion or subscription appertaining to any shares from time to time and for the time being forming part of the Trust or, at their discretion, to sell or realise any such rights provided that the proceeds of such a sale or realisation shall be deemed to form part of the Trust Fund;
- to cause such change to be made in the board of directors, or in the other offices of any of the companies in which the Trust is involved, as they may consider fit, and to appoint or cause to be appointed either one or more of themselves as such directors or officers or cause some other person or persons to be appointed on the basis that such persons will act as nominees for the Trustees. Any Trustees receiving from any such company any fees, salary, bonuses or commission for services rendered to such company, shall be entitled to retain the same for his own benefit and shall not be required to account therefor to any persons interested hereunder;
- decide whether any receipt of a liquidation dividend by the Trust shall form part of the Income or capital of the Trust;
- enable the Trustees to give effect to the above powers, they are hereby empowered to sign all documents and take all such steps deemed necessary for the meaningful exercising of these powers;
- apply on behalf of the Trust for membership of a company or association, or any other body or society and to enjoy the benefits derived from such membership;
- to engage the services of a suitable person of the Islamic Faith to serve as Imaam at the Mosque falling under the direct control of the Trust;
- to make rules in regard to membership of the Rondebosch East Mosque congregation, including penalties or sanctions for breach of any such rules, and to determine subscriptions (if any) payable by members of the congregation; and
- to appoint, from time to time and for such periods and purposes and with such powers, duties and responsibilities as the Trustees may determine in the sole discretion, such committees and sub-committees (including, but not limited to, an Executive Committee and an Ethics Committee) consisting of one or more persons (not limited to Trustees) as the Trustees may think fit for the purpose of dealing with any aspect of the administration of the Trust or any of its assets or affairs, and the Trustees may in their discretion delegate any of their powers to any such committee or sub-committee and may from time to time revoke same and may discharge any such committee or sub-committee. The committees and sub-committees shall consist of Trustees and other persons whom the Trustees in their discretion believe can make a contribution to the Trust. In the exercise of any such powers such committees and sub-committees shall be subject to the same conditions as may be applicable were the Trustees to exercise such delegated powers. The procedures and meetings of the committees and sub-committees shall comply with Shura principles. The chairperson shall determine the rules and procedure to be followed at meetings.
- How to become a trustee?
See attached the roadmap to become a trustee
- What are the criteria stipulated in the trust deed?
Excerpt from Trust Deed Clauses 7.5
In order to be eligible for nomination and appointment as a Trustee, a person must:
at all times be a Sunni Muslim. A “Sunni Muslim” means a person who believes in the unity and wonders of Almighty Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad (SAW), and who does not believe in nor recognise as a prophet any person born after the divine proclamation of Muhammad (SAW) as the final prophet and who claims or has claimed to be a prophet. No person belonging to, sympathising with or recognising any Ahmadi, Lahori, Qadiani, Mirzai, Bhahi or any other person regarded by the Sunni Muslims as a non-Muslim, non-believer, Murtad or apostate shall be eligible for Trusteeship;
be a Resident and/or active participant in the activities of the Trust;
serve as an active participant on any of the committees or sub-committees formed by the Trustees, in whatever capacity, for a continuous period of at least 1 (one) year;
be Baaligh and sane;
perform the five obligatory daily prayers and Jumuah salaat;
pay Zakaah, if liable to do so;
have qualities of Taqwah (righteousness);
be well versed in the laws of Waqaf and Shura or, if not so well versed and still appointed as Trustee, be so well versed within a period not exceeding six (6) months from the date of appointment or such extension of time as the Trustees may determine;
be a reliable witness whose evidence is admissible in an Islamic court of law;
not be a Faasiq (one who openly breaches the Shariah);
be committed to safeguarding the Islamic interest in all aspects;
be of upright character and free from immoral blemish; and
comply with such requirements prescribed from time to time by the prevailing law of South Africa.
- What is the purpose of having criteria to become a trustee?
It is critical for candidates to have comprehensive background & understanding of the REICT community in order to serve the community best.
Problems & issues arise when there are misunderstanding & knowledge gaps hence understanding is required w.r.t. the operational requirements & the complexities involved. Furthermore, it is crucial to understand the constraints & limitations in serving a community such as the Rondebosch East Community. Thus, by serving on sub-committees it will give candidates the necessary appreciation, tools & skills to fulfil their obligations as trustees.
- Do the trustees render services to the trust?
Yes, over the last five years the trustees have rendered services to the trust at NO charge. (FREE) The trustees via their personal networks get professional services to be rendered to the Masjid & Centre either free of charge or at a significantly reduced rates. Some examples of this the most recent work that was done on one of towers at the masjid that was damaged through some severe storms. The normal price for the repairs was R………. ,through the trust network & services of trustees (free) the actual cost was only R…….
A second example was that new aluminium doors was added to the upstairs section of the masjid to facilitate further education. The supplier who belongs to the network of the trustees came to one of the lecture programs that the mosque & decided because the mosque offering such amazing programs free. The supply decided to donate the doors, which would have normally costed R 90 000.00. Thus, a significant saving to the masjid, Algamdulillah.
- Does the trust deed state that the trust can spend R 500 000 without consulting the community?
No, the trust deed does not state this. There has been a misunderstanding of the clause below:
A Trustee may contract with the Trust for the supply of goods or services, but shall not be accorded any special privileges and concessions in doing so, and shall at all times be subject to the same requirements as all other unrelated persons who may supply or tender to supply goods or services to the Trust, provided that where the monetary value of such contract exceeds the amount of R500,000.00 (five hundred thousand rand), the Master’s written permission shall be obtained for such a contract.
- What is the vision of REICT in terms of the organizational organogram or structure?
See attached diagram
- Do the REICT have regular Annual General Meetings?
Yes, for the past five years the REICT has an AGM every year.
- What is the vision of the REICT?
Load vision & mission
Strategic session presentation
Load strategic presentation
- What is the financial responsibility of the REICT?
Meticulous care is taken in the handling of the funds of the REICT. All expenses are accompanied by bona fide receipts.
- Does the REICT have annual audited financials?
Yes, the REICT has an internal & external audit done annually. The external audit is done by a highly respected audit & tax firm in Cape Town. The director of the firm is the deputy chairperson of South African Institute of Chartered Accountants, which has a membership of more than 5000 in South Africa.
- How come the REICT has so much money in the Bank?
Over last five years the trustees has managed to triple the cash position of the REICT even though it had significant operational expenses. The trustees often personally sponsor the REICT events & further support it by getting friends & family to further sponsor the Masjid. As well community members.
- What is the purpose of the fund raising?
The key reason is for maintenance & upkeep of the centre & masjid.
One of the objects of the REICT is to propagate Islam. The REICT believes that the centre is centrally located making it an ideal location to facilitate Islamic education. As the demand & need is growing it is becoming clear that the madrassa space is not adequate. Thus, the REICT have been on the drive for the last several years to extend the madrassa to facilitate further Islamic education.
- What has been the REICT policy of programming?
Over the last five years the trustees have been responsible for the programming & arranging of guest speakers at the masjid.
- What is the role of the imam in the REICT?
The role of the imam is to build the community by maintaining unity & inviting the community to Islam. Lead Salaah, oversee janazahs, marriage counselling etc.
- Who does the employees & the imam report to?
All employees of the REICT must report to the trust.
From the Trust Deed
employ persons on any conditions of employment as the Trustees, in their sole discretion may deem fit, to amend such conditions of employment and to terminate the services of such persons;
to engage the services of a suitable person of the Islamic Faith to serve as Imaam at the Mosque falling under the direct control of the Trust
- What is the REICT policy regarding public notices?
The official policy of the REICT is that no member of the community can read out notices except a member of the trust or the imams. The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the sanctity of the masjid & the well-being of the community is maintained.
In the exceptional case in which a community member is requested to make a public announcement this must be done with the written permission from the board of trust. If the mighrab / podium is used for personal agendas or objectives by any member of the community or REICT staff or if communications are read out without the permission of the board of trust this may attract recourse.
- Can the Trust purchase property to add to the trust assets?
Yes, the trust deed allows for the purchase of property or assets to add to the portfolio of the trust.
See Clauses 9.3.3, 9.3.4, 9.3.5 , 9.3.6
- Can the trustees sell the mosque?
This is an absurd idea. Emphatically No, the trustees cannot sell the mosque. The trust deed & law protect from the selling of fixed property.
From the Trust Deed clauses 9.3.2
Buy, sell or exchange goods, movable or immovable, corporeal or incorporeal, on such terms and conditions as the Trustees may decide and to cede rights, provided that in the case of immovable property that constitutes Waqaf the Trustees shall not be entitled to sell or exchange immovable property unless they receive the consent of the Muslim Judicial Council or any other competent Muslim judicial authority decided upon by the Trustees, whose consent shall not be withheld provided that such sale is in accordance with the teachings of the Quran and the prescripts of the Shariah and is in the best interests of the Rondebosch East Islamic Community. Provided further that any Mosque or portion thereof falling under the administration of the Trust shall be regarded as Waqaf property and can under no circumstances be sold, exchanged or donated in any way whatsoever;
- Can the Trustees dissolve the trust?
Clause 18 in the Trust Deed states:
The Trust shall continue to exist for an indefinite period until such time as the Trustees decide to terminate the Trust, provided that such termination shall not be valid unless the Trustees obtain the consent of the majority of Muslim Residents of Rondebosch East at an Annual General Meeting and who are entitled to vote at such a meeting.
- What is the legal position of employees?
All employees specifically those that receive a salary from the REICT are bound by responsibilities & legal contracts. The trustees are responsible for the management of all employees including the imams, madrassa teachers, caretakers etc. No employee no matter whom he may be can act or conduct himself as law unto himself.
- Are employees registered with SARS?
Yes, all employees are registered with SARS.
- What processes do the trustees follow to manage the employees?
The trustees follow normal South African legislated processes to manage all employees.
- Who are the Trustees?
The Trustees requested for new volunteers to come forward as trustees in April & May 2017. Please see attached processes that was followed.
The only volunteers were:
- Nezaam Jacobs
- Abdul Ghafoor Kamaldien
- Moegsien Wise
- Abdul Kader Parker
- Shaheem Sulaiman
- Asheem Bassadien
- Abdullah Abrahams
- Mogamat Ismail
- Sileem Ebrahim was later co-opted
- Did the Trustees attempt to bond the Masjid or Centre?
- At no time did the trustees attempt to bond the masjid or centre. The trustees seriously considered purchasing a property as an asset for the REICT & explored the possibility of financing it through Albaraka Bank that offers shariah compliant loans.
The reason the REICT was seeking at acquiring property was so that the REICT could possibly rent it to its employees as well as use it as an additional revenue stream to support the maintenance of the masjid & the centre. This is a standard practice among many masjids.
Please see attached letter from Albaraka Bank
Sh Nazeem Taliep was also offered the opportunity to stay on masjid in premises in a house when the premises were acquired. Sh Nazeem chose not to take the opportunity when it was presented to him.
- What was the process with the employment of Ml Yazeed?
In 2012 & 2013 It was agreed by the imams to plan for succession
The position was posted in various Darul Ulooms
The REICT received communication from several interested candidates
The REICT further advertised the opportunity more broadly.
After intensive interviews the REICT identified a suitable candidate.
The REICT was approached by a small group spearheaded by the then imam & the administrator. They did not want the REICT to employ Ml Yazeed.
The REICT acceded to their request & informed Ml Yazeed.
The REICT was then approached by the subcommittees to reconsider & to employ Ml Yazeed because they felt that the Centre & Masjid needed some freshness.
The Trust reconsidered & employed Ml Yazeed.
- What is the process in the facilitation to utilise the premises?
The interested parties approach the REICT with a proposal.
The REICT evaluate if the proposal is in line with the objects of the trust.
The REICT evaluates if the activity is not compromising with an existing running benefit or service that is currently being offered.
The REICT evaluate the successful management of the activity based on the proposal provided.
The REICT has the right to decline or approve the proposal
- Did the current chairperson resign?
Yes, the chairperson resigned in 2016 with the effective date being 31 January 2017 to all for handover to the next chairperson. However, all the trustees & the subcommittees & many senior persons in the community asked him to retract his resignation & stay on serving the REICT. Thus, before his resignation was effective & in the last week of January he retracted his resignation.
- The Journey of a new trustee?
- Experience of Working with the Trustees?
Radia Bawa –
How does she feel about the experience with trustees & the debacle, any preferential treatment
Dealing with the trustees.
Insight of community members close to the masjid.
- What is the activities at the Centre?
- Who do I contact if I want to use the hall?
For hall bookings & information please contact Mrs. Fatima Barnes on
- What are the subcommitees?
Secretary – Shaheem Sulaiman – 074 529 9597
Youth – Shafiek Abrahams 084 703 5502- Feizel Mathews 082 908 4208
Building – Noor Fakier & Zaahir Francis – 083 701 1477
Womens – Fatima Barnes 083 5018719 & Zuleiga Sulaiman 084 478 6510
Finance – Abdul Kader Parker 071 608 3483
Social welfare – Abdullah Abrahams – 082 476 2534
Muathin – Nezaam Jacobs – 082 895 0432
Subcommittees – must bring as many people along.
Tuesday night Meeting –
Frequently asked Questions